The following excerpt on the cited article is taken from Miriam Patrick's Literature Review for Saint Mary's University and is in progress.
Ong and Zhang (2016) considered how code-switching (CS) reading tasks can enhance comprehension and vocabulary recall in a study that consisted of 154 ESOL learners in undergraduate studies in Singapore. Participants were put into two groups, a CS reading group and a comparison group that engaged in graded reading and then further divided into three groups based on scores from a vocabulary screening test, the VLT Version 2 (Ong & Zhang, 2016). Ong and Zhang (2016) found and adapted a target text, which was evaluated for readability, and chose five target words from it; the CS group received the text largely in Chinese with the target words in English, and the comparison group received the original English reading. Neither group received explicit instruction and after given time to read the texts, both groups were asked to evaluate the target vocabulary on the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale; participants then completed a recall test five minutes later with no preparation (Ong & Zhang, 2016). Ong and Zhang (2016) found that the CS group performed better than the comparison group on vocabulary recall and that the comparison group’s success largely relied on whether the other words in the text were already acquired.
This document, which Miriam Patrick has published to the web, will be updated as she experiments with this intervention in her classroom. Please revisit this page for updates.
As of today (10 March 2021), I've done this activity once in class and am planning to do it at least twice more. The process I've outlined above is the one I've used and plan to use in subsequent classes. This reflection is divided into two parts: (1) my observations and (2) students' reflections back to me. These reflections will be updated as I continue to work with this intervention.
This list are questions that I've been asked about the CS document and this research. If you have a question, don't hesitate to reach out and I will do my best to answer it:
Ong, K. K. W., & Zhang, L. J. (2018). The effects of code-switched reading tasks on late-bilingual EFL learners’ vocabulary recall, retention and retrieval. System, 72, 13–22. https://doi-org.xxproxy.smumn.edu/10.1016/j.system.2017.10.008
Webb-Johnson, G. (2003). Behaving While Black: A Hazardous Reality for African American Learners? Beyond Behavior, 3–7. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.xxproxy.smumn.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=14718065&site=eds-live
Summary + Notes
This article takes a look at the statistics for African American students who are identified as part of Special Education programs. Often African American students, particularly males, are over-identified and often receive harsher punishments than their white peers for the same offences. The article goes on to make 10 suggestions for action steps teachers can take. They are summarised below: